The relationship between frame of reference and perception as it relates to the Human Trafficking by Orchid Cao

            Perception is closely related on the frame of reference. Frame of reference is expandable, and it changes perception gradually and frequently. After millions of Irish crossed the Atlantic to America due to the economic hardships and Potato Famine, Irish immigrants suffered and endured the sordid accommodations and status. They worked as degraded workers like Chinese and blacks. The differences of frame of references between the Irish and Chinese be seen as a strategy for planters and colonizers for preventing large strikes. Later as ‘’ Many Irish saw parallels between themselves as a degraded people and blacks in bondage (142, Ronald)’’ , their perception changed. “Irish sympathy for blacks slaves seemed to disappear with the Atlantic crossing (142, Ronald)”, their frame of references got expanded due to their experiences throughout their seeking of wealth and better life in America. That influenced their perceptions toward blacks.

            Irish is the most successful race “merge” into the mainstream of America since “they were ‘white’ and hence eligible for naturalized citizenship (152, Ronald) .” Their appearance are more likely whites’ face, and “they did not have to learn to speak English (152, Ronald) .” Their appearances, gradually improved jobs, values, and language refreshed Americans’ frame of references, and it helped Irish got better jobs and life later on.

            Human trafficking is a criss-cross continental issue, it needs efforts from every countries, states, and provinces departments and NGO’s awarenesses. ’’ In most regions, 80 percent of trafficking invite sexual exploitation, the remaining 20 percent is generally for labor exploitation (25 Painfully Disturbing Facts About Human Trafficking).’’ And 70 percent of them are women. Awareness and understandable thinking about this wretched international problem took a essential step for those people who live in Eastern Europe. An article entitled ‘’Russian Mail Order Brides also known as Human Trafficking’’ mentioned ” The women caught in the sex trade in Russia not only lack the support of their government but a great deal of their peers. In June 2007 over 43 percent of male respondents and 38 percent of females blamed the women and girls themselves for ending up in the sex trade. ” Their perceptions towers the sexual tragedies that happening in their own country can be the origins of victims’ vulnerabilities. Victims who suffered and suffering the sexual abuse not only harm them physically, also spiritually and mentally. And the recovering process of mental health can be longer than recovering physically, and it differ by how severe the damage is. If they got out and realized the surroundings making them even more danger and degraded, where else will they go after? “Systemic social, cultural, and economic policies or practices may marginalize or discriminate against individuals and groups because they are poor, are intellectually or physically disabled, or because of their gender or ethnicity (2016 TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT June 2016, 8) .” Some people came across the country just because seeking for a better life, and lured by traffickers about the “free food and better accommodations,” those cases were described in the TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT June 2016 through out the 400 pages. Also, the discriminations among LGBTs also have high rate fall prey to the human trafficking. In the article LGBTQ Youth at High Risk of Becoming Human Trafficking Victims, it tells a story about a gay—sam, who being kicked about by his father right after knowing his son is gay, and how easy sam became a victim in human trafficking. His father’s perception towards LGBTQ push his own son to the worse circumstances.

          Frame of references came from society, media, and experiences that individuals have been through. People from different backgrounds might more likely have different perceptions among the same news and information. The victims in human trafficking are across cultures, countries, and religions. It make the road of anti-human trafficking even harder. What governments can do in different countries is to establish NGOs, just like what police station in Washington state did in Seattle. Genesis Project is a NPO in Sea-tac, and it receive Commercial Sexual Exploitation from anywhere. They have 3 phases for the victims who suffered human trafficking: Rescue, Restoration, and Release. We are living in a “global village” (Neil, 68) that demonstrated by internet and easily drove by  fast and incoherence information. Some other exciting news drive our attention to unnecessary and time-limit fragments. Human trafficking is a big deal and it is happening around us, and it need each of as be aware of and make a move.

Works Cited:


Ronald, Ronald Takaaki (2008). A different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America.

25 Painfully Disturbing Facts About Human Trafficking, (Youtube)

Russian Mail Order Brides also known as Human Trafficking ,


LGBTQ Youth at High Risk of Becoming Human Trafficking Victims,

Neil, Neil Postman, Amusing Ourselves to Death (68)

Jingyi (Orchid) Cao


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